The Egyptian London Medical papyrus, Late 18th Dynasty, around 1325 BC.
This papyrus is a palimpsest written over an early work dating close to the reign of Tutankhamun, and is in poor condition. Within the nineteen pages there are sixty-one paragraphs, of which only twenty-five are medical (including a small section on gynaecology), with the rest being magical.
The British Museum give the following description:
A mixture of medical recipes and spells
Ancient Egyptian medicine was a mixture of the practical and the magical. Medical practitioners were often magicians. A few ‘medical’ papyri, such as the Edwin Smith papyrus, deal with the observation and treatment of ailments from a very analytical point of view. However, the majority are more like this example: probably used as a reference text by a physician/magician.
The text of The London Medical papyrus is a combination of recipes and magical spells for various ailments. It is particularly interesting because spells are used together with the cures. Some of the texts outline what should be recited when a particular cure is being applied, while others are for driving away evil spirits, which might affect the patient or the magician. The main concerns of the papyrus are skin complaints, eye complaints, bleeding (mostly incantations against miscarriage) and burns.
Courtesy & currently located at the British Museum, London. Scans via the Wiki Commons, originally from Walter Wreszinski’s 1912 publication The medicine of the ancient Egyptians II The London Medical Papyrus (BM 10059) and the Papyrus Hearst.